ENERGY FOR COMMUNITIES AND GREENHOUSES

Index

WHO

WHAT
Buzzard Generator Description
GOAL: MAKE MONEY, CLEAN UP WASTE, CREATE JOBS
Income, jobs, and energy savings from the Buzzard Generator
Income Sources
Direct benefits to community and customers
Benefits to environment
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Buzzard
Company Structure of Projects
WHERE
Site Requirements
Installation
Transport and Assembly
HOW
Fuel in Bales
Combustion
Ash and Dust Removal
SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE
Duties of Customer
Equipment Costs
GREENHOUSE ADDITION TO THE GENERATOR
FINANCING AND OWNERSHIP 
SHIFTS TO CLEAN ENERGY

WHO
The “Buzzard” biomass generator and heater was developed by Salad Greenhouse and associates as a way to heat and provide electricity to greenhouses from renewable fuels. This equipment can also be used as a generator of heat and electricity for communities who want affordable energy from renewable fuels.

WHAT
Buzzard Generator Description
The “Buzzard” converts heat from the burning of biomass fuels to electricity and hot water for heating buildings. Electricity is generated from a binary turbine. The equipment can be used in portable or fixed applications and come in modules for transport on an 8’ wide flatbed.

The Buzzard is a 3 module system consisting of a furnace, heat exchangers, and a turbine. The furnace produces heated air that flows through heat exchangers to heat oil for the turbine, and water for heating buildings and general purpose use. The Buzzard capacity for the 6’ / 1.8m diameter unit is 10,000,000 btuh (1). It can heat 200 houses at 50,000 btuh each; or power 120 houses at 2 kWh (2). Currently there are 2 models: B120 (120 kW) and B250 (240 kW). Electricity generation will start at 120 kW and can be added in increments of 120 kW and 250 kW.

(1) British thermal units
(2) Two kWh is a light load for a household: 1 kW = 1 kilo Watt or 1,000 Watts: 1 mW = 1 mega Watt or 1,000,000 Watts

The turbine is a binary turbine wherein hot oil expands a hydrocarbon in the turbine. The turbine drives an electric generator. It is a safe, operator friendly, closed loop system.

We call our biomass generator the “Buzzard” because it will burn a wide variety of biomass fuels with almost no pollution. The Buzzard is a good performer and the cost is low.

Priority fuels are carbon neutral renewable fuels such as: agricultural waste, factory wood waste, wood chips and sawdust, forest and agricultural waste, “green waste” (tree trimmings), manures, shake shingles, diapers, carcasses, paper and cardboard and sorted municipal solid waste (MSW). However we can apply to burn plastics and other fuels derived from oil and gas and these include: plastics, asphalt shingles, tires, carpets and underlay, and others.

Specifications

Heating capacity: 8-10 million btuh (British thermal units per hour); enough to heat 60 homes in the winter 
Power production: up to 250 kW; power for 104 homes at 2.4 kW each 
Length: 80’ / 24.3 m
Width at widest: 20’ / 6 m
Sections for transport:  4
Weight of sections: 5 tons or less
Foundation:  concrete or paving block floor
Shipping to site:  flat deck
Max rated heat production with 6’ / 1.8 m model:  8 – 10 million btuh
Fuel use at 120 kW:  .26 tons per hour, 7 tons per day 
Fuel use at 240 kW:  .52 tons per hour, 13 tons per day 
Support equipment: fuel grinder, balers, flat deck, bale hoist
Cost:  $500,000 TO $750,000 (US) depending on fuel equipment,
building, and location
Payback period:  typically 4 years or less

GOAL: MAKE MONEY, CLEAN UP WASTE, CREATE JOBS


We offer the Buzzard to small towns and settlements to enable the production of their own energy (and heat) from biomass fuels – and make money doing it.
The Buzzard system would provide incomes, jobs, and energy savings. Energy from a utility company would be an expense with no control over costs.

The following describes a 240 kW generator.

Income Sources
Projects can benefit from multiple sources of revenue including:
1. Sale of electricity
2. Income from burning renewable fuels. Each ton of C02 that is prevented from entering the atmosphere by the burning of renewable fuels will be sold as a carbon credit to companies that burn fossil fuels, thereby, “offsetting” the new carbon released into the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels. SG will administer the sale of carbon credits.
3. Picking up biomass waste that would otherwise be dumped in landfills. We can enter agreements with local biomass suppliers with the expectation that we will be paid tipping fees of $11/ton or more to accept green waste.
4. Sale of hot water heat for district heating
5. Export of electricity to the grid

Direct benefits to community and customers
1. Jobs: fuel collection, transport, clerical; year round
2. Eliminate reliance on diesel electric generators in some community situations
3. Low cost heating and electricity for businesses and homes
4. Reduction in landfill volumes of green waste and regular garbage
5. Heating: Excess hot water heat can be used for district heating of buildings such as houses and commercial buildings, and can be free as a by-product.
6. Income and profits to the community

Benefits to environment
1. Does not contribute to climate change
2. Local biomass fuels: example: nearby forest, or agriculture fuels that have low transport costs
3. Less carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere through reduced consumption of fossil fuels
4. Reduction in potential ground water pollutants
5. Landfill: If a landfill is a fuel source, this takes the pressure off the landfill

Advantages and Disadvantages of the Buzzard

Advantages
- uses mixed fuels
- fuels are generally always available
- fuels can be shredded and baled at the site of collection into neat, clean, odorless, bales; wrapped in plastic
- bales can be transported easily and quickly
- low maintenance with simple operation
- low particulate emissions
- carbon neutral and will not add to greenhouse gas emissions when burning renewable biomass fuels
- can mix fuel types during burning process
- horizontally mounted which keeps the overall height of the Buzzard low
- cost is low compared to steam turbines
- operation is safer because fluid pressures are low (atmospheric); compared to steam turbines (750 F at 800 psi) that require steam engineers to operate

- price is within the range of financing and electric sales can pay financing costs 
- carbon credits will pay for the fuel

Disadvantages
- cannot generate gases for internal combustion engines because all fuel is burned in one stage
- there are limitations to the amount of electricity produced when using hot water in a binary turbine
- Buzzard units are relatively small in size and the outputs are 120 kW (B120), and 240 kW (B240). One 240 kW unit will provide electricity to 120 houses at an average consumption rate of 2 kilowatts (kW) per hour. Two B240 can be combined to produce 480 kW. This contrasts with most other renewable fuel electric generation systems that are 30 megawatts (30 million Watts) and up and can cost over $100 million.

Company Structure of Projects
1. Projects can be owned by a number of partners.
2. Ownership types possible are combinations of public and private ownership
3. Financing could be sourced up to 50% of the project cost
4. Financing costs can be paid by the difference in current costs of electricity and the per kW charged with the Buzzard; thus financing costs could be nil;
- for example, if 3¢ per kW are saved on 250 kW of electricity, the yearly total saving would be (250 kW x .03 x 24 hrs x 365 days) $65.7K. This would pay for the financing costs for the Buzzard with some savings, with lower costs of electricity
- with 50% down, financing for $400K at 6% would be $48K with principal and interest
5. Payback period: 3 -5 years
6. After payback of financing: The going rate of 10¢ per kW could be charged or the cost lowered with the revenue going to the owners, because the equipment is owned

(1) Definitions:
1 mW: 1 mega Watt or 1,000,000 Watts
1 kW: 1 kilo Watt or 1,000 Watts
Btu British thermal unit; the average house will consume 22,000 Btu per hour (Btuh)

WHERE

Site Requirements
An acre is the minimum size required for buildings, storage, and access. The land should be flat and in the proximity of the customers using the energy.

Installation
1) The modules are set on top of concrete piles
2) The ash pit is prebuilt in the ground

Transport and Assembly
1) Modular construction: easy to transport and bolt together at site
2) 5 ton crane capacity required for furnace module
3) Assembly will fit into long containers and on flat deck trucks

HOW

Fuel in Bales
Fuel is selected and baled where the fuel originates, whether it be a forest operation or landfill, and then sent to the Buzzard site. MSW is first sorted to remove non combustibles such as metals, stones, and glass. With all fuels the water content will be monitored, and those fuels with water in excess of 10% will be set aside for drying. After sorting and grading, the fuel is ground up into walnut size in a tub grinder. The fuel is then compressed into plastic covered bales with baling equipment, and wrapped in plastic. The advantages of baling fuel at its origin are: fuel access to large and small amounts of fuel, transport ease, elimination of blowing litter, odors, and stacking.

- the standard bale is 14” / 36 cm x 18” / 46 cm x 42” / 107 cm
- standard bale btu value is .49 million btu at 5,000 btu / lb.; weight without water = 98 lbs / 44 kg

Combustion
Baled fuel is fed into the furnace and will be completely burned. The furnace can convert fuel to heat with a 96% or more efficiency, generating 1500 F heat.

The fuel is burned with high volumes of air to insure complete combustion. Pure oxygen can be used to insure the complete burning of some fuels such as hazardous biologicals (ex. hospital waste) if there was a specific request to destroy this biomass.

The combustion gases could reach the 1,750°F level for approximately one second, which is enough time to completely combust any remaining hydrocarbons (“HC”), carbon monoxide (“CO”), and oxides of nitrogen (“NOx”) and will destroy pesticides and herbicides. Carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds will be essentially eliminated.

Ash and Dust Removal
The combustion gases will exit the furnace, pass over an ash separator, and enter the heat exchangers where water and oil fluids will pick up the heat. The fluids are then used to drive a turbine for the production of electricity, and provide hot water heat to buildings. The gas will then pass through a spray scrubber

There is one ash and one dust separator in the Buzzard. The majority of the ash material will be separated out into the ash pit. The ash produced will be void of organic materials, because all combustible material will consumed in the gasification/combustion process. The ash will be removed from the pit and put into containers for transport to facilities that will process the ash materials into organic fertilizer – if the original fuel is free of heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and cadmium.

At the final stage, after the gas pass through the heat exchangers, the hot air moves through a filter bed of wood chips that are sprayed with water. When the wood chips have separated a sufficient amount of dust, they are burned as fuel. The air temperature at the end is about 120F / 60C, and clean. It is expected the emissions will conform the requirements of the Canadian Stack Emission Limits on renewable fuels of 200 mg / kg (or cubic meter of stack emission) of emissions.

SERVICE AND MAINTENANCE

1. The units are robust and designed for trouble free operation.
2. Operator training supplied: a steam engineer is not required for operation
3. Backup turbine is available
4. Duties of SG
- performance monitoring on the internet
- routine maintenance, overhauls, inspections and parts installation
5. Early detection of problems:
- advisories will be given as to maintenance, performance, anticipation of possible problems etc.;
6. Service and maintenance is paid from a royalty on the sale of electricity of about 3 cents / kW.
7. The unit is covered with a warrantee agreement
- the operation advisories must be followed for the warrantee to be valid
- operation of equipment, or inspections of equipment by unauthorized personnel will void warrantee

Duties of Customer
1. Collect power and heating bills from customers
2. Remit maintenance and monitoring fees
3. Fuel collection and storage
4. Care and security of equipment and buildings

Equipment Costs
1. A Buzzard unit with 120 kW turbine and hot water heat is between $600K to $800K depending on the location.
2. Additional Costs: These costs are listed separately in the quotation because they will differ from site to site; for example: land, reinforced concrete flooring, perimeter fencing, security, front end loader, forklift, scale, truck, and other equipment.

GREENHOUSE ADDITION TO THE GENERATOR

Greenhouse
- Greenhouses: A “range” is 1.5 acres consisting of 20 greenhouses
- Vegetables grown with 27 minerals; clean, pure, healthy, competitive and 1/10 of the water required for arid agriculture

Greenhouse Addition
An SG greenhouse operation added to a Buzzard installation would benefit by:

- low cost electricity and heat
- lower production costs of greenhouse food products
- lower prices for fresh food
- year round operation
- flat land and water required; arable land is not a requirement

Incomes and Benefits in Food Production
- Cost of ranges: First 2 ranges $5.5M, following ranges $2.2M ea.
- Sales per range per year: $2 M gross per range
- Customer base: Everyone who wants a long, disease free, healthy lifestyle
- Customers per range: 16,000 at a low 40 lbs. of produce per person per year; large number of ranges per site are possible depending on the site location
- Projected gross profit: 35%
- Jobs: 12 per range, not including construction, sales, and delivery
- Sustainable production from renewable fuels: No carbon addition to the atmosphere (carbon neutral), and pollution free; 1/10 the water use compared to arid agriculture, sustainable production
- Job training: training is a part of the package

The benefits to the community are:
- a degree of self sufficiency for fresh food at affordable prices, year round
- jobs in construction, production, sales, distribution

FINANCING AND OWNERSHIP

Non Profit Organization Option for Greenhouse Installation


We propose to form a Non Profit Organization (NPO) owned by the Town (municipality, county, or district). The NPO would be an association established for the production of energy from renewable fuels, and fresh food year round. The profits, income and property are not distributed to its members and office holders but are reinvested into the company to serve the communal interest in the expansion of food and energy production and creation of jobs. We will call the company “Community Owned” in this description.

The Town Would:
- own the land and buildings
- own the market area
- be the source of jobs

SG Would:
- provide on an ongoing basis the raw materials, and current developments in crops and methods
- provide building plans, construction and production supervision, markets, and sales training
- provide on going raw material inventory for the production of products


Advantages of Town Ownership
- jobs in construction, production, sales, and services
- prices for food and energy are no longer driven upward by an uncontrolled reckless push for higher profits, but rather the
needs of the community
- “Community Owned” would provide fresh, healthy food year round to local residents and export from the community for
extra income
- “Community Owned” would be a stable long term, local, source of jobs and income based on their own decisions
- identification of the Town as the owner of “Community Owned” when applying for government and private funding
- political weight in having the Town as the applicant for funding
- lower administration costs

Setting up the NPO
- the NPO is an organization to work together to achieve a non profit objective
- “Community Owned” has perpetual succession even if the members and office bearers change
- liabilities of the members of “Community Owned” are limited; “Community Owned” as a legal person is responsible for debts, contracts, and obligations
- Contributing groups, SG, and individuals of “Community Owned” would be paid acceptable amounts for expenses, work, research, goods and services

SHIFTS TO CLEAN ENERGY

“Clean” energy, includes “conventional” renewable energy such as wind and solar, but also recoverable energy feed stocks such as biomass, agricultural / feedlot byproducts (manures and straw) and municipal waste.

The “clean energy” market is projected to grow substantially because:

1. Burying waste in landfills is no longer considered a healthy option
2. MSW can be used as a renewable energy source to replace the burning of fossil fuels
3. Transport costs to landfills are increasing
4. Fossil fuel burning is causing climate change and must be replaced with renewable forms of fuel
5. Landfills pollute the air, ground, and water tables

Pollution and Global Warming
Biomass fuels are renewable because they don’t add extra carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The yearly addition of 10.5 billion tons of C02 into the atmosphere from the burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, coal) and the resultant rise of C02 in the atmosphere from 280 ppm at the beginning of the industrial revolution in 1780 to the current 385 ppm – the highest level in 420,000 years - is causing global warming. This is rapidly approaching the 400 to 500 ppm that is believed will trigger the irreversible disintegration of the polar ice caps; and Himalayan and Greenland glaciers, which will raise the sea level 15m / 45’. It only takes 2 days for carbon dioxide to disperse in the planet’s atmosphere. This will have catastrophic consequences for many populations and global climates.

Pollution Control
The biggest combustion product produced by the Buzzard will be carbon dioxide. The combustion of any carbon based fuel produces about three times the weight of carbon dioxide as the original weight of carbon in the fuel because oxygen is added to the carbon to produce C02. The weight of one carbon atom is 14, and the weight of C02 is 46.

The carbon dioxide produced from the burning or decomposing of agricultural, forest, and other plant based organic byproducts, is not a “new” source of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. It is recycled C02. A plant combines water, sunlight, and C02 from the air to form plant tissues. When the biomass is burned or decomposed by bacteria, the C02 is released back into the atmosphere. This is the carbon cycle. Thus the term, zero carbon emissions because the carbon is recycled and no additional C02 is added to the atmosphere.

New sources of C02 come from the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) and increase the C02 load in the atmosphere which is causing global warming.

Our biomass generators will reduce the addition of new carbon dioxide released into the environment by close to 52,000 tons per year per mW produced (1). Additionally, using biomass fuels instead of fossil fuels will conserve the emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide, and volatile organic compounds that are associated with the combustion of fossil fuels.

(1) ( 2 tons /mW x 24hrs x 365days)3 = 52,560

Waste Disposal and Landfills
In the early days of waste disposal, trash was burned and the ashes buried. Problems with the settling of landfill sites did not develop, because the ashes provided a solid enough base for surface development. This is not the case for existing landfill operations because it’s not burned. During the decomposition of trash at a landfill, the landfill will “sink” in on itself to some degree, rendering the site useless for development. With more and more families moving to suburban locations, the development of new landfills has slowed and closures of landfills currently in use have been expedited. The “not in my back yard” from residents often prevents new landfills from being permitted or significantly slows the process. Public opposition to landfills and transfer stations serves to push waste disposal costs higher because waste must be transported to more distant landfills.

Green Waste & Biomass Renewable Energy Opportunity
Green waste destined for landfills is comprised of trees, grasses, and other foliage. Green waste will naturally decompose over time. From an environmental standpoint, burning green waste at high temperatures is a much cleaner process than landfill decomposition or composting. This is a good fuel source for the Buzzard. Supply agreements with local collectors can be worked out, with the expectation of being paid to accept the local landfill operators’ pre-sorted green waste. This arrangement will allow the landfill operators to conserve valuable landfill space, while at the same time providing the generator with fuel.