SALAD GREENHOUSE – OVERVIEW
1. Who is Salad Greenhouse Inc.
3. Fundamentals of Our Products
4. Greenhouse Design
5. Advantages in Design and Operation
7. Health Benefits
8. Markets and Demand
11. Climate Change
14. Profit Picture
15. Economic Impact
For pictures please go to pictures.saladgreenhouse.com
1. Who is Salad Greenhouse Inc.
Salad Greenhouse (SG) has developed and proven a system for the growing of crops. The greenhouse is designed for the year round production and processing of fabulous salad vegetable and herb crops. We specialize in 'short' crops which are under 24"/60cm. The second is a field channel design that grows large crops such as melons, pineapple, and cocoa. Field channels can be installed on barren land.
Our salad crops are also key ingredients in our list of fast, or convenience foods.
We combine our greenhouses with a biomass generator that produces heat and electricity from renewable fuels. This is a new, unique, and profitable combination. Energy independence helps to control our production costs and keep our produce affordable.
We recirculate irrigation water which is a big advance over one way irrigation used by most greenhouses and all field agriculture. Recirculation saves water, nutrients, and money. With recirculation there is no pollution of land or water tables.
Technical development of SG has occurred over the last 30 years. It has involved the identification of over 10 sites in the U.S. and Canada, and the building and operation of 6 test facilities. The greenhouse and power plant are ready for commercialization.
1. Core Products
- Bagged Salads
Over 30 varieties including: spinach, Chinese vegetables, root crops (beets, turnips, etc.), edible flowers, greens, broccoli, lettuces, onions, radish, chard, and more
- Convenience or Fast Foods
- Pizzas Pitas Wraps Rolls
- Top 11 culinary herbs sold in bags or as living “mats” (8”x10” /20 cm x 25 cm)
- CEMA Juice (electrolyte, mineral, antioxidant): A cold pressed, unpasteurized, pure vegetable juice from the roots and leaves of greens and grain grasses. It contains highly concentrated electrolytes, antioxidants, flavonoids, enzymes, and 27 minerals.
- Herbs known for sex enhancement
- Herbs known for tumor reduction
2. Large Root Crops
Large root crops would be grown in channels in field channels, or in modified greenhouses. Environmental controls are not as concise as in greenhouses. These crops would require over 2 months to grow.
1. Starch crops and grains: taro, potatoes, and yams; and grains such as rice
2. Trees and bush crops: Blackberries, blueberries, and raspberries, apples, citrus (lemons, limes, oranges), palm, coffee, pineapples, olives, cocoa, tea, aloe,
agave, cotton, medicinal herbals (ex. antimalarial), hemp, hops, tobacco
3. Vine: grapes, tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplant
4. Melons and squash
5. Forage crops: alfalfa
Other Potential Processed Crops
Baby Food Essential Oils Flowers
Health Food Medicines Potted Type Plants
Medicinal herbs Personal Care Pet Care Processed Foods
Salad Dressings Sugar Substitute Teas - Herb
Cough Lozenges Cosmetics Lotions
Complete Meal Salads
Salads accompanied with bean, pea, chickpea (garbanzo), or lentil (like a half pea) condiments, salad dressings, bread sticks, wraps, and forks; ready to eat as a full
3. Fundamentals of Our Products
We have a new greenhouse that grows pure, healthy vegetables year round with 1/10 of the water . We make our own heat and electricity from renewable fuels. Production is year round and the returns on investment are good.
Produce and herbs are grown in soilless, clean, pure, conditions, in environmentally controlled greenhouses.
Irrigation water is filtered and sterilized. Our produce is dark green, fresh, and flavor rich.
Crops are grown with 27 minerals. They contain Omega 3 nutrients, antioxidants, flavonoids, vitamins, and enzymes.
Complete mineral plant foods slow aging, are vital for cardiovascular health, and build strong immune systems. Strong immune systems are known to prevent cancers (5) and infectious diseases. The food chain now has about 6 minerals. Fresh pure food, combined with regular exercise is required every day for good health and a maximum lifespan.
We use no manure fertilizers that can contain harmful bacteria (E. coli, Salmonella), hormones, and pesticides - know your source.
Outstanding returns on investment. Convenience foods are beneficial to our profit margins
We grow about 12 -18 crops per year under controlled conditions, compared to 1 or 2 field crops per year grown in uncontrolled conditions.
Our salad vegetables are the best in the business when it comes to color, taste, crunch, and flavor.
Comparable or lower prices than field produce; double the ingredients and lower prices than some fast foods in the same category
Shelf life for unrefrigerated produce is 2 weeks + with wet roots intact
Low cost staff housing on site that is self financing and results in lower production costs
Because crops are grown and processed year around, jobs are year round. Winter production is equal to or better than summer production. Our produce is always in season. We can supply our own fresh produce with year round production and therefore be self reliant.
- Our market is everyone who wants a long, healthy, disease free lifestyle. Our pure salad vegetables are part of a lifestyle that will make this happen. Every living person is our market.
- Components of our products are known to stop cancers, infectious diseases, and memory loss
- Locations of greenhouses will be next to cities; climate and land are not concerns. Imports are replaced. Sales are as direct as possible for a rapid and secure cash flow. - Transport costs are minimized.
- Renewable biomass fuels are burned on site, to provide greenhouse heating, and electricity for cooling, desalinating water, and running the greenhouses. We are free of the dependency on oil and natural gas and are “off the grid’.
- We can operate equally well in cold and hot climates.
- Pollution of water tables and land degradation is zero. A facility can operate indefinitely with no harm to the environment because we do not rely on depletable resources such as topsoil, or non renewable energy from fossil fuels.
- Lower amounts of fresh water are used for irrigation: ex. we use 1/10 of the water used in arid field agriculture.
We can purify water to a drinkable irrigation base from sources such as: lakes, rivers, oceans, lagoons, 'grey' effluent, and ground.
4. Greenhouse Design
Our uniqueness is our greenhouse/energy package (6). The greenhouse unit, or range, is 1.5 acres (covered, 2 acres gross area) and consists of 20 greenhouses, 1 nursery, and 1 service building. Our specialty is growing vegetable and herb crops under 24"/60cm. The rate of crop growth is generally 1 crop per month. Our methods enable the growing of a wide variety of plant types. R&D funding and knowledge was provided by Canadian federal and provincial governments.
The greenhouse technology and design package is a body of information that is protected in trust. It is provided to our partners under license for one dollar a year for the mutual benefit of SGI, its partners, and shareholders. It is available to all who want to become partners in a working greenhouse installation, working under the Operating Agreement.
5. Advantages in Design and Operation
A SGI facility is superior to average greenhouses because of the following features:
Building: The main unit of production is a 'range' or group of 22 connected buildings (25' x 115' each). Each range requires about 2 acres of flat land, including access roads. A range features a concrete floor, structural steel frame, and a crystal clear storm proof covering, (hail and UV resistant).
Build, Operate and Train: SGI is the general contractor, and trains staff to operate the greenhouses. A comprehensive training program is provided for all operating personnel along with a full apprenticeship term. We keep construction costs within a realistic and predictable budget and avoid construction extras and overruns.
Carbon Dioxide Air Enrichment: By elevating the levels of carbon dioxide in the greenhouse air, we achieve faster growth and larger crops without diminishing the nutrient content.
Clean conditions and environmentally controlled buildings: No soil is used in the system - the growing area is clean. Computer controlled air and water quality insures that the crops are of consistent high quality.
Energy: The Buzzard is our own, new, biomass generator. It generates electricity and heats water from a wide range of renewable biomass fuels with minimal pollution. We call it the ‘Buzzard’ because it will ‘eat’ anything. The standard version is 68’ / 20.7 m long, and 13.5’ / 4.1 m wide. At peak output it produces 10,000,000 Btuh or 300 boiler horsepower (enough to heat 100 homes in the winter) and 125 kW of electricity. It is relatively low cost, and is the key to producing our own electricity and heat from renewable fuels. It lowers our production costs, and gives us long term energy security and sustainability. Our products are not subject to price increases in oil, gas and coal which are sure to rise.
Electricity will run electric equipment in the greenhouses, including equipment to purify irrigation water from “grey” or ocean water. Hot water will heat the buildings by pumping hot water through pipes embedded in the floor (hydronic heating).
The Buzzard can burn a variety of cheap, renewable biomass fuels such as sawdust, agricultural waste, manures, diapers, wood chips, sorted municipal garbage, animal carcasses, dried sewage sludge (dried with Buzzard hot air), shake shingles at high temperatures with almost no particulate pollution. We can also use tires, carpets, and plastics with permission. These fuel options enable SG to use the available fuels in locations of opportunity, and therefore control costs. The burning of municipal waste to run all phases of a greenhouse will be an SG first – “food from waste fuels”. Biomass combustion is considered C02 neutral and not a producer of greenhouse gas.
Biomass combustion is considered C02 neutral and not a producer of greenhouse gas. We are able to trade carbon credits. Each range eliminates 1,252 tons of C02 from entering the atmosphere each year. These income sources can be substantial at $15/ton but are not factored in our Income Statements.
Hot water can also be produced in areas of high sunlight with the use of hot water solar panels, or from geothermal sources.
Hurricane Proof: Inexpensive structural additions can prevent wind damage up to force 4 hurricanes (135 mph).
In hot weather, the air in the ranges is cooled by evaporative cooling and fans.
Locations: We can locate in a wide variety of locations providing there is: a source of sufficient water, reasonably level ground, at least 1,800 hours of bright sunlight per year, and customers to buy our products. We do not require arable land, and can use water from a variety of sources. Generating our own electricity and purifying our own water results in less reliance on available local utilities. This creates more independence and freedom in selecting greenhouse locations. When choosing a site, priority can be given to the available market rather than the availability of resources such as arable land, water, and electricity. This would apply to the Caribbean and South Pacific.
Pure irrigation water from many sources: The source water for irrigation water is treated to a pure, drinkable base before it’s used as irrigation water. Because we use relatively little irrigation water (1/10 of that used in arid field irrigation), we can afford to process water from different sources that have varying degrees of pollution. Source examples are: rivers, lakes, ocean, and used or "grey" sewer water. This increases the number of location options. For example, a city's used water could be distilled to purity with heat generated from the city's garbage. We are running out of fresh water. Populations have doubled, but fresh water demands have risen three times. Its notable that 500 gallons of fresh water are required to grow and process the food each person consumes each day.
Projections in 2008, state that by 2030, 8.3 billion people will walk the Earth, and farmers will have to grow 30% more grain (National Geographic, Sept. 2008). In a special issue of the National Geographic, in April 2010, it notes that “Water is the earth’s most vital resource. How we use and reuse water will help define the future of our planet.”
Steven Solomon, in his book Water, notes on page 373: “ In the first decade of the 21st century, an astonishing number of nations were so critically water stressed that they can no longer grow all the crops they need to feed and clothe their own populations. Growing crops is an astonishingly water intensive enterprise – about ¾ of mankinds water use worldwide is for farm irrigation”.
Security: What we do is our customers business; how we do it is our business.
- Waist Height Crops: All crop seeding, transplanting and harvesting is done at waist height eliminating the need for stooping and crawling.
- Quick transplant and harvest - Minimal plant disease caused by root damage - Recirculating system saves water and nutrients - Growing of plants of all sizes starting from seed, cuttings, and tissue culture (a few cells to millions of plants) - 27 mineral irrigation - Year Round Operation: SGI can grow and process crops year round, in any weather. This results in a year round supply of products to customers and good steady jobs. Everyone, from the Range Manager down shares in profits that are a percentage of sales.
Today, most greenhouses growing food crops in Canada are involved in the growing 'long crops' because the technology is available, and the incomes are good. Long crops are tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, and eggplant, and represent 95% of the production of greenhouse food industry crops. SG specializes in short crops which have little or no greenhouse grower competition - depending on the crop - because growers are few, and most of the short crops are field grown and imported.
Production is going down: Currently in Canada, 53% of vegetables and 98% of fruit is imported. Production is going down and Canada may lose its ability to produce the foods we eat. In the last 15 years, food imports have rising 160% while the population has increased 15%. Alberta imports $170,000,000 in vegetables and Ontario imports $4 billion more than it exports. Grocery dollars end up in other countries while family farms in Canada struggle and disappear. Central Ontario paved over 49% of its farmland in the last ½ of the last century.
Buyer beware of imported produce: There are no consistent or effective controls on the amounts of insecticides, herbicides, bacteria or parasites found on, and in, imported produce. Also, prices and availability of imports are variable throughout the year. In contrast, SG will sell pure salad and herb produce, year around, at consistent, competitive or lower prices to our customers. .
We call our products "pure" to avoid conflict or confusion with "organic" produce grown by "organic" farms which use "certified organic manure" fertilizers and “organic pesticides”. The word “organic” is now used by so many products the name is becoming useless. Our produce is simply pure because we provide our crops with pure nutrients and clean water. We do not use manures for fertilizer which are loaded with deadly bacteria such as e. coli and salmonella that can enter the tissues of produce plants through the roots (1). Eating imported lettuce or other produce contaminated with E. coli or Salmonella bacteria can put you in bed for 4-5 days, or the hospital, or kill you. It’s not a good way to lose weight. More than 11,000 people per year in Canada and the U.S. fall ill or die of e. coli poisoning (2), and 35% of food-borne illnesses in the U.S. are transmitted by produce (3). Contaminated food causes an estimated 76 million illnesses and 5,000 deaths each year (7)
"Organic" plants: The concept of “organic” produce was set up to offer an alternative to produce treated with insecticides and herbicides (together = pesticides). The original intent was good and heavily advertised but now the brand “organic” has lost its meaning. Its turned into a buzzword and attached to a range of food products to simply make money.
When animals eat plants, they pull out the majority of useful mineral nutrients from the plants in their gut. What remains is mineral deficient manure. “Organic grown” plants are grown in this manure that has already passed through an animal. The manure is mineral deficient to begin with, and plants become weaker and more mineral deficient the longer crops are grown in the same manure. The plants also become more useless as a good source of nutrition to people who eat them.
In 2016 the USDA approved hydroponics as a method to produce "organic" produce.
When SG is in production with the first range, and we advertise our advantages of healthy, pure, crops available year round and at a moderate cost, we will not be able to build ranges fast enough. Competition? We will offer joint ventures to partners and give them the technology to become rich with their own company. We will receive a minority interest and royalty on production.
7. Health Benefits
People are placing great personal importance on their health and longevity. They are finding out that the solution to good health is not in the hospital. Today’s reality is prevention of disease and self reliance. The constant message is exercise regularly and eat fresh pure vegetables 9 times a day (4). Pure fresh produce is essential for health - there is no substitute. Cancer is now seen as the result of a diet deficient in fresh plant foods. SGI will grow those crops that are known to prevent cancers as a matter of routine. The medical journal, Cancer Causes and Control, states, "vegetables and fruit contain the anticarcinogenic cocktail to which we are adapted. We abandon it at our peril". We need at least 24 minerals to maintain good health. We feed our crops with 27 minerals.
Our products are the ultimate in nutrition and are a must for a healthy, long life. We guarantee a full range of essential nutrients because we add them to our irrigation water, and we know the concentrations at all times. This is almost impossible with field crops. The current food chain, starting with grains, typically has 5-6 minerals. The original minerals in most topsoils have been exhausted and only about 6 are required to grow “pulp” crops that are abundant in fiber and air. We try to get something for nothing by growing food of little nutrient value on exhausted land. The Law of Soil Exhaustion is written on the graves and ruins of past civilizations.
People are sick and tired, dying, and living shortened lives because of a toxic, altered, processed, highly advertised, profit driven industrial food chain that is based on 5 major ingredients (white flour, sugar, salt, fats, dairy). Industrial food is mineral deficient liquids and pulp processed with chemicals and machines. The reactions to an industrial food diet are physical and mental. They can include: heart attack, stroke, cancer, infections, overweight, diabetes, depression, schizophrenia, memory loss, poor grades, anger, and addictions. Autoimmune problems are asthma, allergies, ADD and MS. All of these are rising resulting in falling life spans, and quality of life. As Tom Pawlick states, in his book, The End of Food, "it is not the boomers who are suffering, it’s the kids and younger people because they are being brought up on industrial food". Exhausted farmland and industrial food as the cause of these rising disease rates can only be inferred. Its difficult to prove, because anyone tested with a diet of white flour alone, for example, would be dead from malnutrition before anything else turns up.
When we are nutritionally deficient we are open to attack from parasitic microbes – fungi, bacteria, yeasts, viruses, parasites – because our immune systems are depressed. These diseases were not found in our hunter gatherer ancestors. The primary job of the immune system is to eliminate microbes and cancer cells. The immune system requires minerals on a daily basis for renewal. Without minerals, the immune system fails. We age fast, and invite degenerative diseases and cancers.
Without an intake of a complete range of minerals, we will become diseased and die. When you have cancer, or cardio vascular disease, it’s too late to realize that your diet has been deficient. It is nature’s law. You are what you eat. It’s a matter of choosing junk foods over ancestral foods. Junk food is sold in slick packaging pushed by ad agencies in the fast food industry and is empty of minerals. Its all about ‘business’ and selling junk for high profits. Ancestral foods are the foods that keep us well; and we evolved with them over a period of 2 million years. They are full of minerals that are organically bound in plants.
We grow our crops with irrigation water containing 27 minerals in which the trace minerals are included in balanced, life supporting proportions. Lifestyles involving exercise, combined with a consistent intake of all the mineral nutrients bound organically in plants will contribute immensely to a healthy, long, disease free life. The only way to ingest minerals through our gut, is to have them chemically bound to an organic molecule. Plants take inorganic elements through their roots, and combine them into organic compounds that we are then able to digest. The words chemical, nutrient, element, and fertilizer all refer to minerals.
Testing of the minerals in our products can be done at any one of a number of trace element laboratories recommended by the USDA or CFIA. We know the minerals are there because we constantly add them to the irrigation water.
8. Market and Demand
People are sick and tired, dying, and living shortened lives because of a toxic, altered, processed, highly advertised, industrial food chain that is based on 5 major ingredients (white flour, sugar, salt, fats, dairy).
The demand for pure produce is growing fast because people are now realizing that a diet based on fresh, pure, fruits and vegetables prevents and stop diseases, and promotes health. The components of our products are known to stop cancers and infectious diseases and this appeals to millions of customers. Every living person is our market, because everyone needs our products to live a healthy life. Without fresh food you die. We have conducted 4 formal market surveys, and every one indicated a solid, enthusiastic response to SG grown produce. Especially when the prices, availability, and quality are better than imported.
The North American market for organic produce alone is in the billions per year and is increasing. It is almost impossible for earth farms to meet this demand because there is not enough unpolluted acreage available that can be classed as "organic", and naturally pure irrigation water is becoming rare.
Canada has traditionally been a net importer of vegetables because of winter. In 2014, total vegetable imports including fresh, dried, frozen and processed were $2.649 billion at the wholesale level, and are going up each year (a). Canada imports over 53% of its vegetables and almost all of its fruit, and is dependent on the production of other countries, namely the U.S., Mexico, and China.
Imports are increasing because healthy lifestyles are more popular. Normally produce comes from traditional sources such as California and Arizona. But there are big trends slowing or preventing the supply from these regions. These trends are climate change, the deportation of Mexican farm workers, farm worker unions demanding higher wages, higher energy and transport costs, carbon taxes, and water shortages. Also, the Canadian dollar is expected to lose value that will make imported produce prices go higher.
Canada is rated #6 in the top importers of vegetables in the world (U.S., Germany, U.K., France, Russia, Canada) (a) (b). It’s a depressing fact that we are not producing enough to feed ourselves.
In 15 years food imports have risen 160% while the population has risen 15% (3). In 2013, Alberta imported $301 million in vegetables. In 2013 BC exported $253 million and imported $584 million. Ontario imports over $4 billion in produce more than it exports (3). In 2009 the total area planted in Canada with vegetables was reported at 105,608 hectares, and in 2013, 98,465 ha - a decline of 7% (a). If this continues we may lose the ability to produce many of the foods we eat (3).
Many of our grocery dollars end up in other countries while small farms in Canada are disappearing at an alarming rate. In the second half of the 20th century Ontario paved over 49% of its prime farmland (3).
The vegetable greenhouse industry in Canada grows mainly tomatoes, cucumbers, lettuce, and peppers. Still, far more of these are imported than produced in Canada. In 2014 these imported crops were valued at $1.189 billion in a total of Canadian imports of $2.6 billion.
The average distance that fruits and vegetables travel to market is 4,497 km (3). Vegetables and fruits are bred for longevity in transport and not for nutritional value. Imported food can take weeks to arrive in Canada, losing much of its nutritional value along the way. Locally grown food can be delivered in hours. Canada should produce more fresh food at home and import only when necessary. Canadians will choose Canadian produce if it’s available.
Top imports SG can grow are:
Beans Beets Cabbage Cucumbers
Kohlrabi Leeks Lettuces Okra
Onions Parsley Peas Pepper
Radish Rapini Tomatoes Turnips
Note that the greenhouse industry in Canada is primarily tomatoes and cucumbers, and these are still being imported.
Three points to emphasize are:
Canada is #6 in the top vegetable importing countries in the world
Farmers and vegetable farm acreages in Canada are falling in number
Canada is becoming more reliant on imported vegetables; top 3 supply countries are U.S., Mexico, China
(a) Google: 2013 Statistical Overview of the Canadian Vegetable Industry (this is the most informative)
Imports: No Controls
There are no consistent or effective controls on the amounts of insecticides, herbicides, bacteria parasites, and heavy metals found on, and in, imported produce into Canada. If the Canadian public only knew of the health problems of pesticides on imported produce, there would be great concern. In 2007 the U.S. produced 5,085,000,000 lbs. of pesticides, or 13.3 lbs. for every person in the U.S. The EPA says that pesticides are a leading cause of health problems, including cancers. In 2016 the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention said that 48 million people get sick from food poisoning each year and 1 in 5 illnesses are linked to leafy green vegetables. Colorectal cancer is deadly, and on the rise in younger people. The cause could be the greater use of deadly pesticides and herbicides from countries like Mexico who are using more of these to guarantee a crop. For example, parathion is used by the ton in Mexico under several different brand names and the lethal dose is 1/80 that of DDT.
The quality of imported produce also depends on the quality of the irrigation water used by crops, and water quality often reflects the environment. In Mexico, black water is used in some areas (raw human sewage) (35) and in China the water pollution is beyond belief (23).
Import Price Increases
Prices for many packaged salads have doubled in the past 4 years. Prices have stayed the same but some of the packaging has changed. A 10 oz. bagged package about 4 years ago was $4. The price is now $4 for 5 ounces (142 g) in a cello pack that holds more air. Changing the package to hold less, and charging the same price is a common marketing trick.
Climate change is drying up California and Mexico. California has traditionally supplied 52% U.S. produce (2) and has supplied Canada as well. But no more. Agriculture in CA is drying up, and ongoing climate change is turning much of the state back into an unproductive desert. In 2015, CA is reported to have only 1 year of surface water left (3). In 2016 the rain giving El Nino was a dud.
At a price of about $4 per 10 oz. bag, Salad Greenhouse can earn a profit of about 30% based on past growing experience and projections. We may not be able to match the projections in actual operation if any of the Risk Factors (4) come into play all prices for different weights are adjusted to a 10 ounce (283 g) standard quantity
We will sell as directly as possible to our customers by 3 methods: 1) direct sales with agents operating in local storefronts to food services (restaurants, schools, cafeterias), based on the M&M, McDonald’s, Tim Horton’s and Apple models, 2) contract sales to supermarkets, and 3) direct home delivery via internet sales. Our salad mixes will be of all types: standard, fun, diet, colorful, herb flavored. Convenience foods will be sold either fresh or frozen. We can replace imports and can develop exports. Great importance is placed on person to person sales and service, backed with advertising. We will supply our customers with specific products, a year round supply at stable prices, food safety, and traceable products.
With our marketing system, our products are paid for as soon as they are shipped; therefore our cash flow is secure and fast.
Vision and Goals – Regional Production
Our vision and goal is to locate a fresh to market greenhouse / processing operation in every market region we have access. A market region is defined as an area where there is sufficient sunlight, water and access to biomass fuel, and customers for our fresh to market products within a day’s transport time. An example would be an operation on the outskirts of a city.
Fresh to market means the delivery of produce via the fastest and most direct route from the grower / processor to the customer – options are truck, van rail, and container. This is best accomplished with producers within a market region, in contrast to centralized production.
11. Climate Change
Human activity is changing the climate. In pre-industrial times, the carbon dioxide (C02) level in the atmosphere was 280 ppm (part per million). In 2012, the level was 400 ppm and levels are accelerating. 400 ppm is considered a “tipping point”. The point of no return, or tipping point is between 400-500 ppm and everything must be done to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Emissions of new, man made C02 into the atmosphere in 2016 were a record 46 billion tons, up from 34.5 in 2012. This would fill 416,000 stadiums seating 100,000. The C02 levels for 2016 were 403 ppm.
The NOAA (U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) stated in July 2012 that the major cause of bad weather is man made. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; a group of 2,500 independent scientists) has consistently warned that fossil fuel emissions (C02) are causing climate change. The conclusion is that current droughts and storms are not a cycle. Each year they will become more severe because fossil fuel emissions in the atmosphere are cumulative. This impacts food production. Drought areas are increasing at the rate of 12 million hectares per year (3.7 times the size of Vancouver Island, or almost the size of England) and are predicted to cover 40% of the land surface. 2017 was the hottest on record and crops were baked in the fields. The NOAA reported that Aug. '17 was Earth's hottest August on record, smashing old marks. 2018 will be hotter and records are being set in the spring. In 2017, forest fires burned so hot its doubtful the forest will ever recover. This adds to the drought areas.
C02, water vapor and methane are greenhouse gases (ghg’s) that trap heat of the sun in the atmosphere – its not C02 alone. It’s a triple hit. Methane is 23 times as powerful a ghg than C02 and more is released the warmer it gets. For every degree C the atmosphere warms the atmosphere can hold 7% more water vapor. Water vapor, methane, and C02 act together to raise temperatures. Added heat and more water vapor create stronger storms, climate change in traditional agricultural areas, heat waves, changing winters, flooding from “atmospheric rivers”, downpours, deserts, melting glaciers, and rising sea levels. This is unbelievably dangerous, and more people should ‘get it’ because food production is in peril.
Over the last century there has been a 1 degree C (1.5F) rise in temperature which is high by earth’s standards. Elevated C02 levels today are melting the Arctic seas. With a rise of 1 more degree the Greenland ice sheet will melt, and it is already starting.
If the world heats up by another 2 degrees C the results will be catastrophic. A new world conference attended by up to 24,000 people in Copenhagen in the fall of 2010 sounded the alarm. This level was expected at 2050 but we are quickly approaching it now - just look at the weather.
A 3 degree rise in temperature guarantees disaster. This will cause the Greenland sheet to melt completely, and the ocean levels will rise more than 25 m (80’). A 3 degree rise would burn away the Amazon forest, flood major cities and lowlands, and release more C02 from the melting of the methane hydrates now frozen on the floor of the Arctic ocean. There are more methane hydrates than all the known oil and gas, and methane is 8 times more potent as a greenhouse gas as C02. There was a 3 degree rise 3 million years ago, and sea levels were 25 m (80’) higher than today. If we follow the current rate of fossil fuel burning, then temperatures will rise 2-3 degrees by mid century, much sooner than predicted.
Less Than a Decade Left
There is less than a decade left to stop the rise of 1 degree. Emissions must level off. Lowering the particulate in North America will not stop the particulate pollution in India (1 million people per year die of air pollution) and China. So we still face the same problem of particulate pollution. If particulate pollution is eliminated then warming will accelerate. There is no choice but to lower fossil fuel burning. As it is, agriculture in California and Mexico will fall dramatically or cease from a lack of water. This has already started. Production will have to shift to other regions.
Drought and the Industry Migration from California
Climate change is drying up California, Mexico, and the American Southwest that will last 200 years. The current onset of the weather pattern El Nina will last for years making CA even drier.
California has traditionally supplied 52% of US produce and has supplied Canada as well. But no more. Agriculture in CA is drying up, and ongoing climate change is turning much of the state back into unproductive desert. In 2015, CA was reported to have only 1 year of surface water left.
Farmers and farm corporations in CA and AZ are abandoning their farms and moving in a dead end migration to Mexico. Although Mexico is under the same drought threat as the American Southwest, no restrictions on water use are in place. The money driven grab to get the last drop from Mexican aquifers and rivers is on. Its a race to the bottom or until reserves run out. Water resources are not sustainable and Mexico will repeat the failures of California. Soon scarcities will show up resulting in higher and higher food prices.
In 2016 it is reported that the farming industry in CA is beginning to move to Oregon.
A larger greenhouse industry is needed to protect food production. SG grows crops with 1/10 of the water used by arid agriculture, and is powered with heat and electricity from renewable fuels which are carbon neutral and with minimal particulate. This is the future of sustainable food growing.
(Sources: NASA, Goddard Space Institute, Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change)
SGI wants partnerships and joint ventures with anyone who wants to set up a regional greenhouse project. The promoters of the projects will receive commissions, shares in the projects, and other benefits such as his or her choice of jobs. SG can write the business plan for new ventures.
Oil and natural gas prices will increase dramatically. Starting now, or in 2– 4 years, depending on the source quoted, a serious, permanent, world shortage of natural gas and oil will happen and this will drive up the cost of everything – especially food because the food chain is totally dependent on cheap oil. One billion barrels of oil now takes only 12 days to burn at current world consumption rates of about 100 million barrels a day! The remaining 1,100 billion barrels of recoverable oil on the planet will be gone in 12 years (.1 bn x 365 days = 365 bn / year; 1,100 bn barrels left / 36.5 bn per year = 300 years), if the planet systems don't collapse first.
Food production now relies almost exclusively on oil. 15 calories of fossil fuels are required to create 1 calorie of food. As oil supplies drop, they will be replaced by other fossil fuels and energy prices will rise even higher. The bulk of the world’s population of 7.3 billion (rising at the rate of 80 million a year) is now dependent on fossil fuels for food. Some say the sustainable level is 2 billion people and Canada and the U.S. is 60 million, down from the current 340 million. The question is: who will survive among those who insist on fossil fuels as their energy source?
Rising costs are impacting the price of food. These are water for irrigation, agricultural machinery, pesticides, processing, arable land, food security, refrigeration, packaging, transport and disposal. The whole fresh food chain is undergoing an upward price trend and along with it the costs of health care. However, SG will be able to grow and process affordable produce because of year round regional production, and a reliance on renewable fuels for heating.
We have designed a new biomass generator. It burns a wide range of renewable biomass fuels with almost zero pollution. We call it the ‘Buzzard’ because it will ‘eat’ anything. The initial electrical capacity will be up to 250 kW and will be able to provide electricity to over 2 ranges. We can adapt the Buzzard to use geothermal hot water. The Buzzard now releases SG from the dependence on fossil fuels for energy. Therefore our products are not subject to price increases in oil, gas and coal which are sure to rise.
Incomes and benefits from the use of renewable fuels to provide heat, electricity, and fresh food:
Produce sales - Carbon credits where applicable
- Pickup fees for some fuels
- Electricity sales off grid - Heat sales to buildings on or off site - Location of greenhouses in areas where there are no gas or electric lines
- Direct benefits to community - Pure, healthy, produce sold locally year round at affordable prices - Jobs: construction, production, and sales year round
- Eliminate reliance on diesel electric generators in some community situations
- Better health and lower medical costs
- Low cost heating and electricity for businesses and homes
- Less carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere through reduced consumption of
- Reduction in landfill volumes
- Reduction in potential ground water pollutants
- An option for the survival of individuals and communities
A sustainable community can have 3 businesses on one site: 1) energy from renewable fuels, 2) greenhouses for food production, 3) housing.
Energy in the form of hot water and electricity is generated from renewable fuels from our own biomass generator. Greenhouses use the energy for food production. Houses receive low cost heat, electricity, and drinking water. Those living in the houses can have jobs in the greenhouse and generator. Therefore it is a triangular relationship between generator, houses, and greenhouses where each depends on the others for sustainability.
14. Economic Impact
One range provides about 10-12 jobs, not including construction and sales.
The following is a brief outline of the operation of an initial 10 ranges growing produce for bagged salads, with a capital cost of $21.4 million. Salads crops will result in lower, conservative, gross annual returns compared to faster crops such as spinach, and costlier crops such as herbs.
Number of ranges 10
Area 24-40 acres
Direct person employment 120
(not including construction or sales)
Gross annual sales $18-$20 million
Gross Profit Income 40%
Direct production payroll $4 million
Economic multiplier (x5) $20 million
How many customers per range:
Generally 1 range can provide for 2,500 people as a rule of thumb, with bagged salads, and produce through direct delivery. This is based on the USDA per day recommendation of 3.5 servings, or 350 grams of raw vegetables of the type we can grow in a range. Each range is capable of producing annually: 838,000 heads of lettuce, 220 tons of spinach, 588,000 lbs. of tomatoes, 698,000 Liters of CEMA nutrient juice, 19.2 million green onions.
The ability to grow a wide range of salad crops and herbs in one facility, at the rate of 1 crop or less per month, year round
Juice products from grain grasses and greens with an astonishing array of health benefits for health and longevity. CEMA Juice (SG name) is a powerful nutrient
Construction and operation of 5 prototypes
5 person to person market surveys.
Identification and investigation of 10 joint venture sites
Curriculum base for junior colleges
An accounting system for controlling construction costs
Detailed construction ready designs and cost analysis for the construction of ranges
Software for on line sales, store, and direct delivery sales
Equipment designs for generating electricity and heat from renewable fuels
We are “going green” and off the grid
Other Reference Material Available
Links: http://pictures.saladgreenhouse.com http://health.saladgreenhouse.com
17. Business Plan
A Business Plan can be written for a joint venture.
18. References to Overview
(1) Rutgers University, New Jersey
(2) Higgins, National Post, Jan. 12, 02
(3) Atlanta Centers for Disease and Control
(4) ‘9 a Day Plan’ U.S. Dept. of Health; Canadian Food Guide: 8-9 servings of fruits and vegetables per day
(5) World Cancer Research Fund 1997, American Institute for Cancer Research, American Cancer Society; Journal: Cancer Causes and Control
(6) Provided to SGI partners through an exclusive license which protects and benefits partners
(7) Business Week (2007)